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2013 in review

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 4,500 times in 2013. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 4 trips to carry that many people.

Click here to see the complete report.

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Posted by on January 6, 2014 in Uncategorized

 

DIP – Best option for high performance shoes with PU sole

Why we should consider Direct Injection Process as better option in comparison to Pouring Process for manufacturing high performance shoes with PU Sole for Police, Military and Security Forces? 

Some of the important factors that should be considered before taking a final decision to choose a technology for PU Soling

PU is made by mixing together two liquid components (Isocyanate and Polyol) in predetermined proportions, which react together to form the solid cross-linked PU material. 

  1. Uniquely, PUs Utilise simultaneous polymerisation and shaping of the part. 

  1. Production of consistent end products depends on mixing, in precise ratio, the ingredient chemicals and maintenance of the processing temperatures. As the liquid Isocyanate and Polyol react to form the PU, the liquid mix becomes increasingly viscous eventually forming a solid mass. 

  1. Success is due to good formulation with well chosen and appropriate processing parameters, technology and mould geometry.

  1. The process by which liquid polymers are converted to elastomeric or glassy solids is fundamental to the manufacture of PU products.

  1. The properties of a PU are largely controlled by the chemical nature of the system and how it is processed; so it is prudent to consult specialist suppliers and choose the best technology at this stage.

  1. The curing of a PU can be regarded as the formation of a network, also called cross-linking, the extent or degree of cure is often expressed as the crosslink density.

  1. The extent of cross linking will be reflected in the final properties of the PU, ranging from longer, linear chains of flexible elastomers and foams to the rigid, heavily cross linked polymers.

  1. The mixed liquids (ISO & Polyol to form PU) hardens and permanently fuses into one piece with the upper

    • —This is possible because of the dramatic speed at which monomers polymerise to form network polyurethanes, a process that is so rapid, that articles may be fabricated by injecting the reacting monomers directly into a mould.

    • —In case of pouring method, upper is clamped down on mould after mould is filled with already processing liquids. Clamping down the upper on open mould containing liquid for soling is not automatic and delay of few seconds would lead to variation in results.

I would also like to mention few points in respect of PU processing and advantages of DIP over Pouring process.

  1. Polyurethane can be processed by

    • Slow process: Casting (Pouring) into an open mould

    • Fast process: Direct Injection Moulding (DIP) in a closed mould

  1. Due to the need for a controlled and rapid polymerization process, DIP (RIM) is best suited for condensation type polymers with favorable polymerization kinetics. Examples are polyamides, epoxides and especially polyurethane (PU), which represent more than 95% of total RIM production.

  1. Processing of components has three stages

    • Metering

    • Mixing

    • Moulding

  1. In case of Direct Injection Process these three stages are complete in one integrated and highly controlled machines.

  1. Quality of end product will depend on the above three stages of formation of PU

a. Metering

Advantage of DIP: 

Volumetric Control: Each size of shoe will need different volume of mixed chemicals. In case of DIP, volume injected for each size fitted mould is precisely controlled independently. Since the material is injected in closed mould there is no possibility of material splashing out of mould.

Practically, in case of pouring process, material is poured by bringing head over the mould manually and at times some volume loss is there due to splash etc. Short volume will cause low density product. Therefore different shoes can have different density.

In case of uncontrolled Pouring process (as normally used in India) Poor Metering will result into off ratio mixing of components. This would result into lower tear strength & Tensile Strength.

b. Mixing: Good mixing quality will decide quality of end product.
“Reynolds Number (Re)” is the measure to judge the mixing quality. More the “Reynold Number” better is the mixing quality

Re = 4Qρ/  > 150

Q is the volumetric flow rate
d is the Nozzle diameter
ρ is the density

μ is the viscosity of the fluid

Advantage of DIP: Material is mixed at high-speed and injected with high pressure as compared to pouring process, therefore volumetric flow rate is higher. Resulting in higher “Re” means better mixing quality

In case of DIP Nozzle Diameter is less as compared to the diameter in case of pouring head. Therefore “Re” will be higher, again better mixing quality.

c. Moulding: Moulding will depend upon balanced ratio of the ingredients and their mixing quality.

DIP Advantage: due to better metering of components and better mixing quality. Further to this; since material is injected into a closed mould there is no atmospheric effect on formation of PU after mixing.

It is important to understand that formation of PU (moulding) start immediately (almost instantly) once mixing is started.

At this stage, we must also understand the advantage or need of high speed mixing. In case of DIP; chemicals are mixed at 18,000 RPM whereas in case of Pouring mixing is done @ 5-6000 RPM.

Slow flow of prepolymer (mixed components just before moulding) into the moulds results into voids / air pockets.

In case of pouring machines, mixed chemical is poured at slow speed and by the time the mould is filled and mould lid is closed with upper, formation of PU has already started and fluid viscosity has increased. Therefore material will flow slowly into the mould during moulding. This would lead to poor bond strength.

Further, since the flow is also dependent on mould temperature and there is no temperature control in the pouring conveyors that are normally being used by Indian shoe manufacturers.

d. In case of pouring process, two much of release agent is used in moulds, which result in air pockets in the PU sole.

e. Air Pockets / Voids, would result in the following problems

i.   Non uniform Density
ii.  Lower Compression Set
iii. Lower Hydrolysis resistance means lower shelf life.
iv. Uncomfortable in long wear. Rough surface and stones on the walking are can be a problem.

f. High mixing speed in case of DIP gives better grain structure resulting into better physical properties.

  1. DIP machines have the mould carrier with a mechanism that after injection of PU into the mould, the bottom stamper is lifted with 50kN clamping force for creating “bubble free” tread sole.

This mechanism is not there in case of fabricated mould carriers used for pouring machines by most of the Indian manufacturers.

Bubble Free (Air Pockets free) has its own advantages as explained above.

Clamping force is limited in case of pouring machines. There are always possibilities of more air pockets / bubbles in PU Sole made by this process.

  1. Shell mould with flap frame for immersed last and moulds with undercut are required to make bucket type of sole as required in specifications of shoes. These types of moulds are not used in these crude fabricated mould carrier conveyors.

  2. Desma is one of the largest machine manufacturers for PU Soling. On the basis of many advantages of DIP machines over the Pouring Machines, DESMA Does Not Qualify Pouring Process technology for Safety and military footwear.

  3. In case of Direct Injection Process, Sole becomes integral part of the upper as the material is injected directly onto the upper in closed mould, resulting in better bond strength as compared to other soling methods like Pouring, Stuck On etc

  4. In case of pouring method mould temperature can not be controlled due to its open condition and results on final product vary from time to time.

  5. In case of pouring method, upper is clamped down on mould after mould is filled with liquid is already processing. Clamping down the upper on open mould containing liquid for soling is not automatic and delay of few seconds would lead to variation in results.

  6. In case of DIP, moulds are closed with upper already clamped on mould and liquid is injected directly onto the upper, the curing is formation of PU is done in closed mould with upper. This gives better consistency in results.

  7. In case of pouring method, since moulds are in open condition, there are possibilities of foreign particles like dust, etc. entering from the atmosphere into the sole liquid resulting in poor quality sole.

  8. High speed blending result into strong molecular structure, whereas in case of pouring loose molecular structure. Loose structure will result into low resistance to hydrolysis. (Low shelf life)

Since the molecular structure is very close in case of DIP, the infiltration is good; the combination with other components is good resulting into better bond strength

Dr.B.N.Dass, of CLRI made a presentation on DIP and Pouring on 05/07/2013 at the seminar on PU held by FDDI at Pragati Maidan. We would like to highlight the relevant part as under:

It must be understood that Mr.Dass made a comparison on the basis of PU UNIT SOLE (to be pasted on upper by stuck-on process) made on highly controlled Pouring Machines vis-à-vis Direct Injection Process for PU Soling Directly onto the upper.

It is very important to note that Indian manufacturers of shoes by PU pouring process are not manufacturing shoes on these types of pouring machines. They are simply using pouring heads to pour PU into open moulds fixed on simple fabricated conveyors. Therefore the comparative analysis made by Dr. Dass is not relevant in comparing the two processes of manufacturing.

I would therefore like to highlight only the following relevant part of the presentation in respect of DIP for manufacturing shoes. 

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————–

I. Advantages of PU Sole formed by RIM (Direct Injection Process)

a. Light weight
b. Flexible
c. high-density skin & fine cell structure
d. High modulus
e. Increased hardness
f. Greater compression set
g. Good tensile strength

h. High tear and abrasion resistance
i. Larger processing windows in some systems
j. General visual quality is excellent as compared to shoes made by pouring process
k. Excellent consistency of products within and between batches.

In case of shoe made by pouring process consistency within and between batches is very poor due to variable factors and uncontrolled manufacturing. Consistency is important to maintain uniformity of lots.

II  RIM (DIP) offers high productivity, cleaner working conditions

III.  Pouring technology is less productive as compared to DIP, use of solvents is not ecofriendly. (FDDI is making specifications with ECO friendly parameters)

IV. Comments from Mike George
Footwear Technology – Testing
SATRA Technology Centre, Wyndham Way, Telford Way, Kettering, Northamptonshire, NN16 8SD,  United Kingdom

 “RIM (DIP) machines are likely, in many cases, to be more modern and sophisticated than machines used for pouring/casting. This means that RIM machines may offer better control and consistency over the processing conditions such as mixing, shot size, temperature, timings etc compared to more simply designed casting machines.”

———————————————————————————————————————————

In view of the merits of DIP, FDDI has also recommended this process since last over 13 years and also in statement given to Delhi High Court. 

During last many years FDDI had issued specifications with only one manufacturing process for PU sole i.e. DIP. 

Pouring process is not an accepted technology by the forces. Forces, today are demanding DIP-PU Sole Shoes and this was strongly put up in the DGS&D meeting where Mr.Parvatikar, Technical Advisor FDDI also endorsed DIP as the most suitable technology for shoes for forces and was accepted as the only suitable technology for PU Sole shoes.

Due to merits of DIP, quality shoe manufacturers have opted for this process.

Prem Mehani
Email. pmehani@yahoo.com
Tel. +91 9810170201

For shoe manufacturers:
Which manufacturing process do you have in your factory?

 

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Law Enforcement Boot

 

Allen-Cooper-Law-Enforcement-Combat-Boot-AC1096-85024-500

85024 Allen Cooper Combat Boot AC1096

  • High quality full grain leather and nylon fabric
  • Waterproof breathable 1000 Danier Nylon fabric. The colour of the fabric black/camouflage pattern.
  • Water repellent, tear resistant and scratch proof upper.
  • Moisture wicking breathable inner lining.
  • Fully Cushioned Upper
  • Boots have padded tongue and collar. Wide and partly stitched tongue along the eyelets/hooks.
  • 08 Rings with a Hook for Speed Lacing
  • Cup Type Directly Injected Double Density PU Outsole
  • Slip resistant outsole to make sure non skid
  • movement over wet and slippery surface.
  • Full cushion removable EVA foot bed / Insocks
  • Firm heel counter
  • Extra Strong Round Laces

——————————————————————————
Contact Us

 

 
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Posted by on November 14, 2013 in Law Enforcement Boot

 

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Direct Injection Process (DIP) and Pouring Method for PU Soling onto Footwear

 

 “let there be no bare feet…”

Selection of Polyurethane

Consider the requirements which the application will demand of the PU with respect to chemical and physical properties.

Based upon an understanding of what controls these properties select a few PU systems.

The properties of a PU are largely controlled by the chemical nature of the system and how it is processed so it is prudent to consult specialist suppliers and processors at this stage.

Direct Injection Process (DIP) PU

The PU, in liquid form is Injected into the closed mold (holding the upper) at high pressure. Thus we get the term “Direct Injection Moulding

The PU hardens and permanently fuses into one piece with the upper. There is absolutely no chance of separation.

Direct injection moulding or Direct Moulding points to the fact, that the soles are moulded directly onto the upper without use of adhesives or stitching.

This is possible because of the dramatic speed at which monomers polymerise to form network polyurethane, a process that is so rapid, that articles may be fabricated by injecting the reacting monomers directly into a mould.

High Mixing speed of over 18000 RPM resulting in better grain structure and thus better physical properties.

PU Direct Injection Process Moulding Machine

“PU Direct Injection Process Moulding (DIP-PU) Machine”

PU Pouring Technology

As the name suggest this technology uses the method of pouring the liquid mixture into an open mould.

PU Pouring Head

“PU Pouring Head”

The basic principle involved in this technology is the mixing of two liquid chemicals, Polyol and Isocyanate, using a mixing head and pouring the liquid mixture at low pressure into an Open Type Aluminum Mould, thereby PU remains in open condition for sometime.

With P.U. pouring technology, there are two options:

One, where the mixing head is stationary, and the mould-holders move (Conveyor Type Fabricated Mould Holders or Rotary Machine); these machines normally have 32, 40, 60, 90 or 100 stations, as per production required, and are costly options.

In the other type, called BANANA (thanks to the shape of mould-holders), the mixer is moved manually, while the mould-holders/ moulds remain stationary; in such a case you could have 6, 12, 18, 24 and up to 32 stations / moulds and is a more economic option.

“Type of PU Pouring Machine”

PU Pouring Machine

DIP Vs Pouring

Pouring Method

Possibility of blending Waste to lower cost but also result in lower quality
Possibility of blending solid additives (such as PU waste, cork, barium sulfate and many others) with Polyol and Isocyanate within the mixing chamber

PU-Pouring-Head-Crossection

Liquid Mix remains in open condition resulting in lower quality
The basic principle involved in this technology is the mixing of two liquid chemicals, Polyol and Isocyanate, using a mixing head and pouring the liquid mixture at low pressure into an Open Type Mould, thereby PU remains in open condition for sometime.

Possibility of blending Waste to lower cost but also result in lower quality
Possibility of blending solid additives (such as PU waste, cork, barium sulfate and many others) with Polyol and Isocyanate within the mixing chamber

Low Pressure Mixing
Mixing and Pouring is done at low pressure that result in poor results as compared to Direct Injection Process, in particular bond strength is badly effected.

PU remains in open condition for sometime.

PU-Pouring

Use of Pouring Method in making parts
Pouring technology is suitable for making small PU Parts and is not recommended as a soling method for footwear. This technology is generally used to manufacture soles to be used in footwear with stuck on method.

Direct Injection Process (DIP-PU)

Sole Become integral Part of Upper
In case of Direct Injection Process, Sole becomes integral part of the upper, resulting in better bond strength as compared to other soling methods like Pouring, Stuck On etc.

Better Grain Structure of PU
Due to higher mixing speed of over 18000 rpm as compared to pouring method, better grain structure is obtained resulting into better physical and chemical properties.

Consistent Quality
Injection at high pressure into the close mould results in better flow of liquid into the mould that gives better results due to least atmospheric contact and self curing of mixed liquid.

Injection moulding machines used into the production of shoes are highly controlled machines in respect of temperature control, mixing pressure, mixing ratios etc. therefore better and consistent results are obtained.

Others

  • In case of pouring method mould temperature can not be controlled due to its open condition and result may vary from time to time.
  • In case of pouring method, upper is clamped down on mould after mould is filled with liquid is already processing. Clamping down the upper on open mould containing liquid for soling is not automatic and delay of few seconds would lead to variation in results.
  • In case of DIP, mould is closed with upper already clamped on mould and liquid is injected directly onto the upper, the curing is its formation of PU is done in closed mould with upper. This gives better consistency in results.
  • In case of pouring method, since moulds are in open condition, there are possibilities of foreign particles like dust, etc. entering from the atmosphere into the sole liquid resulting in poor quality sole.

In view of the merits of DIP, FDDI has recommended this technology as

  1. A proven and reliable technology for making shoes with PU sole.
  2. Better technology for use in manufacturing shoes with PU Sole to be used by Police Personnel.
  3. Based on merits of DIP, BPR&D has approved this technology and have recommended Various Departments to purchase shoes made out of DIP-PU Sole

Comparison between Direct Injection PU and PU Pouring

Specification PU direct soling
Direct Injection Process
PU pouring
Ejective power The material pump and the centrifugal force while the SCREW is operating in high-speed. Weight (Gravity)
SCREW R.P.M. More than 18000r.p.m. /minutes 5000~6000r.p.m.minutes normally
Material Pressure 4-5kg /c㎡ 0 (Gravity)
Mold internal With hermetical space, so the material has pressure itself.(The sole plate has pressure) With opening space (because the mould is open), so the material only has expansion pressure.
Position of the injection nozzle In the side of the mold On the upper opening of the mold
Molecular structure Blending at high speed, so the structure is denser. Blending badly, so the structure is
loose.
Combination The structure of the molecular is very close, so the infiltration is good; the combination with other components (upper material) is good. The structure of the molecular is loose, so the infiltration is bad; the combination with other components is not good.
Suitable products Shoe types, such as Industrial Shoes (Those have to be bended often and to be used in rugged conditions) Chair (for clean room), chair arm, and the wheel (Something don’t have to be bended often)
Recognisation International recognisation from agencies like SATRA, EN, BIS etc. Part of International standards for footwear and also BIS No recognisation by any organization, so no literature or journals available for this process of making shoes.


 

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Polyurethanes – What Goes Into PUs?

  • —A PU is made by mixing together the ingredient chemicals (Isocyanate and Polyol) in predetermined proportions, which then react to form the polymer PU.
  • —Uniquely, PUs utilise simultaneous polymerisation and shaping of the part.
  • —The production of consistent end products depends on mixing, in precise ratio, the ingredient chemicals and maintenance of the appropriate processing temperatures. As the liquid Isocyanate and Polyol react to form the PU, the liquid mix becomes increasingly viscous eventually forming a solid mass. The reaction is exothermic and therefore heat is involved.
  • —Other ingredients will be included in the polyol blend, for example the catalyst which controls the rate at which the liquid mixture reacts to become solid.

Success is due to well chosen technology

There are no hard and fast rules for obtaining the optimum PU end product, success is due to good formulation selection with well chosen and appropriate processing parameters, technology and mould geometry. The process by which liquid polymers are converted to elastomeric or glassy solids is fundamental to the manufacture of PU products.

Selection of a Polyurethane

  1. —Consider the requirements which the application will demand of the PU with respect to chemical and physical properties.
  2. —Based upon an understanding of what controls these properties select a few candidate PU systems.
  3. —The properties of a PU are largely controlled by the chemical nature of the system and how it is processed so it is prudent to consult specialist suppliers and processors at this stage.

Basic Polyurethane Chemistry

  • —The simplest PU is linear in which the hydroxyl compound and the nitrogen compound each have a functionality of two. This can be represented by the following:

Isocyanate + Polyol = Polyurethane

  • —The isocyanate can react with different chemical groups, so the final properties of the polymer will vary according to the reaction route taken.
  • —Therefore the formulation of a PU must take into account every possible reactive constituent. PUs may have a very widely varying structure depending on the type of isocyanate and the type of reactive hydrogen components present in the formulation.
  • The presence or otherwise of the various groups along the urethane linkage will control the end properties of the polymer.
  • The curing of a PU can be regarded as the formation of a network, also called cross-linking, the extent or degree of cure is often expressed as the crosslink density.
  • The extent of cross linking may vary and will be reflected in the final properties of the PU, ranging from longer, linear chains of flexible elastomers and foams to the rigid, heavily cross linked polymers.

Chemical Structures

isocyanates

polyols

Posted by:
Prem Mehani 
for Pinza Footwear
Email. pmehani@yahoo.com

 

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Footwear tips for Monsoon

Monsoon, the rainy season, in India is like a festival. After severe heat people are waiting for the rain and when it comes, people can be seen dancing in rain and rejoicing in many ways.

A pleasant weather is not the only thing that monsoon brings for us. It is well equipped with not only the higher chances of fungal and bacterial infections, but also the chances of slipping on wet surfaces.

Last week after a day’s rain in Mumbai my daughter slipped on water covered stairs causing bruises and grounded her for a day. She missed her Mumbai Darshan organised by NMIMS, Mumbai for freshers of the college.

Following on, I thought I’d write about footwear you can use for the coming rain season.

Mentioned below are few tips that will help you in buying right footwear for monsoon and keeping your feet happy and infection free this season.

Flip-Flops made of rubber or materials from PVC are ideal for the rains, because they are washable, dry easily and easy-to-maintain footwear. They are available in a range of designs and colours and are suitable for both girls and guys.

Full Plastic Footwear are low-cost options for rainy season and are widely used in heavy rains. Nowadays they are available in varied style generally looking like stylish leather shoes.

Crocs are a better option for the rains. They are essentially rubber, and their grip is also better, so they won’t slip from your foot when both are wet with rain water. Colourful options with holes on top make them a style statement for monsoon.

With a formal outfit, you can wear sandals with straps as they would be firm on your feet. Go for slip-resistant sandals and check that your wet feet don’t slip even inside the footwear.

Open toes or closed shoes: Open toes or peep toes are available in waterproof material from PVC. They come in colours like red, pink, blue, silver and gold. Flat Ballerinas or closed shoes made from Lycra look great and survive monsoon.

Gum Boots: There is nothing better than rain boots and Gum Boots to protect your feet in heavy rains. This waterproof footwear is usually knee-high, water-proof and are mostly made from rubber or PVC. These boots protect the feet from mud, dirt and water during monsoon.

Avoid

  • Avoid wearing heels in rainy season. But, if you just cannot resist wearing heels then go for slip-resistant sandals of heels not over 2 inches.
  • Avoid wearing leather footwear as much as possible since the material gets easily infected with fungus and bacteria. They have a tendency to support bacteria because of the moisture.Still have passion for leather footwear, look out for Waterproof shoes. The waterproof range of well-known brands is quite stylish and perfect for a rainy day. Formal shoes made of waterproof leather and shoes with foam base that are odor-resistant are a huge hit with office-goers.

Here are some tips while purchasing your footwear for monsoon:

  • While purchasing plastic footwear, make sure that the pair doesn’t have any sharp edges as those could give you shoe bites.
  • For this season particularly, whether you are buying flat sandals or heels, look for footwear with good grip that hold feet in place and do not slip when the feet and shoes are wet.

Don’t

  • During monsoon do not wear sports or canvas shoes as they may attract the growth of bacteria.
  • Don’t keep your shoes and sandals under the bed or inside the shoe rack when it is wet. This gives birth to bacteria’s. Let them dry under the sun to keep away the bacteria’s from breeding in your shoes.

Mentioned below are few tips that will help you keep your feet infection free in Monsoon.

  • Camphor powder is an effective antiseptic. Mix it with talcum powder and apply before wearing shoes and after opening them.
  • Rubbing onion juice between infected toes helps to cure infection faster.
  • If you develop itch due to mud water, wash feet in a mild solution of lime juice and vinegar to reduce the itch.
  • If your wet feet have tendency to cause odour, mix 5 ml of peppermint oil in a tub of lukewarm water with handful of neem leaves and soak your feet for 10 minutes. Dry and spray talcum powder on it. This will help in reducing the perspiration plus relieve you from odour-causing bacteria.
  • Sometimes in this season our nails become soft, brittle and start to clip. You can prevent this by adding a few drops of olive oil and lemon juice to a tablespoon of honey and apply this mixture to the nails before sleeping to treat brittle nails.
  • At the end of a humid rainy day, soak your feet in cold water and salt solution. Scrub, clean and wipe dry.
 
8 Comments

Posted by on June 24, 2012 in Buying Footwear

 

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Azo Dyes in Leather

‘Hide’ (or Animal Skin) needs to be tanned and treated with certain chemicals before it achieves the characteristic ‘leather look’. Chemicals are also needed to preserve the hide before tanning, or while the hide is in transportation.

Azo compounds are compounds containing the nitrogen or azo group (a bivalent group –N=N- united by two aromatic groups). Due to the brilliant colours of aryl azo compounds, they often find use in dying and pigmentation, and are thus commonly known as Azo Dyes. Around 70% of dyes used for colouring leather are azo dyes. You can read more about the chemistry of azo dyes here.

Colored Leather SheetsWhile most azo dyes are suitable for use, there are some that contain aromatic amines which release carcinogens (cancer causing substances). Exposure to them is harmful to human health. In many developed countries of the world, particularly European countries, use of certain azo dyes has thus been restricted. This has been done to protect consumers from substances hazardous to human health.

If you are an exporter of textile or leather products to EU countries, you have to ensure that your product does not carry any of the banned azo dyes. Also, every individual part of your product must comply with the limits. For example, shoe laces in footwear need to comply with the limit of 30ppm, as well as leather parts of the footwear.

Responsible manufacturers across the world can protect their workers and consumers by avoiding use of the 22 harmful aromatic amines as recognised by the EU. Azo dyes which do not release these aromatic amines should be used.

Click here to read the EU legislation and learn which azo dyes are harmful.

 
1 Comment

Posted by on May 23, 2012 in Leather, Tanning & Chemicals

 

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